January 11, 1922: 14-year-old Leonard Thompson becomes the first person to receive an injection of insulin as a treatment for diabetes. At the time he weighed only 29 kilograms and was expected to slip into a coma and die, the usual outcome for patients diagnosed with diabetes. Thompson recovered and lived another 13 years before succumbing to pneumonia.
January 13, 1978: NASA selects its first U.S. women astronauts.
January 13, 1404: The Act of Multipliers, which declared it a felony for English alchemists to use their knowledge to create gold and silver, is passed in parliament during the reign of Henry IV. It was feared that some alchemist might succeed in synthesising precious metals and bring ruin upon the state by furnishing boundless wealth on a tyrant who would make use of it to enslave the country. 
January 14, 1914: Henry Ford announces the newest advance in assembly line production of modern cars. The new continuous motion method reduced the assembly time of a car from over 12 hours to 93 minutes.
January 16, 1909: British explorer Ernest Shackleton discovers the magnetic south pole.