October 21, 1824: In Yorkshire, stone mason Joseph Aspdin patents Portland cement, made by burning finely pulverised lime and clay in a kiln.
October 22, 1797: André-Jacques Garnerin makes the first parachute jump from a hot air balloon from a height of 900 metres, over the Parc Monceau, Paris. Garnerin rode in a gondola fixed to the lines of a parachute seven metres in diameter supported by a wooden pole with its 32 white canvas gores folded like a closed umbrella. Since there was no vent in the top of the parachute, he descended with violent oscillations and suffered the first case of air sickness.
October 23, 1814: English surgeon, Joseph Carpue, performs the first modern plastic surgery at Duke of York's Hospital, Chelsea, England. Carpue operated on a British military officer who had lost his nose to the toxic effects of mercury treatments, and another whose nose was mutilated by a sword.
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